Saturday, April 14, 2007

Appendix B.07.iii. - reference tools (meta-s):

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B.07.iii. Reference Tools (META-S):
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the Metaphysical Thesaurus and Metaphysical Dictionary(2004) states:
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pranic healing […] the energy of the mind used in the form of breath control; prana, or vital force, is used in the East to heal [p.019…] prana: the universal principle of energy; also used to designate the vital force of the body, which is a manifestation of the universal prana […] vedas: the sacred books of India [p.063]”;
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(ISBN 1419173723)
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the Microsoft Encarta World Dictionary states:
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i.
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[in “Vitalism”]
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“belief in vital principle: a doctrine that maintains that life and the functions of a living organism depend on a nonmaterial force or principle separate from physical and chemical processes. See also dynamism”;
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(click here,
http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/Vitalism.html)
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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ii.
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[in “Life Force”]
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“philosophy. Same as élan vital”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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iii.
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[in “Elan Vital”]
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“creative life force: according to the philosophy of Henri Bergson, a creative life force present in all living things and responsible for evolution”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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iv.
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[in “Vital Force”]
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“[2] animating soul or spirit: the animating or vitalizing spirit, soul, or source of energy believed by some to be inherent in living beings […3] natural [!] force for health: in alternative medicine, the natural mechanism or force that keeps somebody healthy and that, when weakened, makes the person susceptible to illness”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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[in "Vitalistic Medicine"]
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"vitalistic medicine, in alternative medicine, generic term for a range of therapies based on the theory that disease is engendered by energy deficiency in the organism as a whole or a dynamic dysfunction in the affected part. Such deficiencies or dysfunctions are regarded as preceding the biochemical effects in which disease becomes manifest and upon which orthodox medicine focuses. Acupuncture, crystal therapy, homeopathy, magnet therapy, and naturopathy are all vitalistic therapies";
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,

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vi.
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[in "Spirit"]
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"life force of person: the vital force that characterizes a human being as being alive";
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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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the Mountain Mail states:

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[in "Chiropractor Opens Office In Pie Town"(2006) per Larson, J. (? ?)]

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"'a chiropractor[Susan Pisano] is someone in tune with the vital force, or life force, of the human body,' she said. 'I call it the triad of health. The best way to think of it is like a triangle. At the top point is mental and emotional health. Another point is chemistry and nutrition, and a third point is the nervous system. Each of these three factors affect the others.' She said the chiropractic technique is not to treat the symptom, but the underlying cause of the pain or condition";

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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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the National Library of Medicine states:
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i.
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[in "Vitalism"]
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"The metaphysical doctrine that the functions and processes of life are due to a vital principle distinct from physicochemical forces and that the laws of physics and chemistry alone cannot explain life functions and processes. Vitalism is opposed to mechanistic materialism. The belief was that matter was divided into two classes based on behavior with respect to heat: organic and inorganic. Inorganic material could be melted but could always be recovered by removing the heat source. Organic compounds changed form upon heating and could not be recovered by removing the heat source. The proposed explanation for the difference between organic and inorganic compounds was the Vitalism Theory, which stated that inorganic materials did not contain the 'vital force' of life";
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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ii.
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[in "Qi"]
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"The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)";
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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the New Penguin Dictionary of Biology(1990) states:
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[in "Vitalism"]
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"vitalism: metaphysical doctrine with early roots, popular in a variety of forms during 19th century. Opposed to alternative extreme of scientific materialism. Underlying most vitalisms was the conviction that life was more that mere complex chemistry, otherwise science would subject even human activity - to deterministic explanations. Ignorance of biochemical principles made such phenomena as growth and development mystifying, employing terminology beyond physics or chemistry. Such causal agencies as 'entelechies' and 'vital forces' were invoked for really baffling phenomena but added nothing to understanding. Vitalists, often religiously inspired, eschewed Darwin’s mechanistic philosophy [p.589]";
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(ISBN 0140511776)
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the New York Times states:
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i.
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[in "Genome Human" (2006-06-03)]
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"[Dizikes, P. (? ?) writes ] vitalism, with its notions of special life-engendering essences";
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(click here,
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ii.
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[in "On Fringes of Health Care, Untested Therapies Thrive" (1996-06-17)]
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"[Kolata, G. (? ?) writes] practitioners of naturopathy say that disease arises from blockages in the flow of a life force through the body and that cures follow from treatments like acupuncture and homeopathy";
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(click here,
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iii.
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[in "In Quests Outside Mainstream, Medical Projects Rewrite Rules" (1996-06-18)]
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"[Kolata, G. (? ?) writes] alternative medicine can include treatments offered by practitioners like naturopaths, who attribute disease to blockages in the flow of a life force through the body; chiropractors, and acupuncturists";
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(click here,
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newconsumer.com states:
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[in "Health and Beauty Entrepreneurs: Up Close With Weleda’s Susie Fairgrieve"{2007-08-23}]
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"Weleda’s Susie Fairgrieve talks us through Rudolf Steiner’s ‘anthroposophic’ theory [!] and the use of biodynamic ingredients [...] what led Steiner to founding the business? In the early 1900s pioneering scientist [!] and philosopher Rudolf Steiner was working closely with doctors and pharmacists on an approach to natural health care that he termed anthroposophic medicine. Steiner’s approach was what we would today call ‘holistic’ recognizing that wellbeing is not just about our physical body, but also our mind and spirit. The focus of anthroposophic medicine is to stimulate our own natural ability to heal, restoring the balance of bodily functions and strengthening our immune system or life force. Weleda was founded in Switzerland in 1921 (and in Britain in 1925) to supply health products to doctors who wished to put into practice the anthroposophic theories and naturopathic approach of Steiner and his colleague Dr. Ita Wegman [...] crops are planted or harvested at the optimum time and the soil is enriched and revitalized with biodynamic preparations and natural fertilizers, so plants have a strong inherent life force and a more potent effect when used in health products";
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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the Norton Dictionary of Modern Thought(1999) states:

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"complementary medicine [...] healthcare not normally taught at conventional medical schools [...] many [...] link back to the notion of vitalism [...per] the notion that man has an energetic [as in spiritual] base to his being and function [p.148-149...] élan vital, see under vitalism [p.258...] vitalism [...various beliefs sharing the idea that] living processes are not to be explained in terms of the material composition and physico-chemical performances of living bodies [...e.g.] a vital principle such as an entelechy [...aka] an élan vital or life force [p.911]";

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(ISBN 0393046966)

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the Online Plain Text English Dictionary / Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary 1913 states:
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[in “Vitalism”]
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“the doctrine that all the functions of a living organism are due to an unknown vital principle distinct from all chemical and physical forces”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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(also click here,
http://machaut.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/WEBSTER.sh?WORD=vitalism)
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,

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the Oracle ThinkQuest Educational Foundation site “Alternative Medicine Online, Alternative Medicine Therapies: Naturopathic Medicine” states:

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[apparent contributors Alyari, S., Riccio, J., Benson, J. (a highschool project?)]

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"method: naturopathic treatment works with the person's vital force, his or her body's ability to fend off diseases and illnesses by itself, without intervention";

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(click here,
(archived here,
(authorship credits archived here,

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Ottowaplus.ca states:
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[in "Alternative Medicine"]
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"naturopathic medicine. Similar to homeopathy in its emphasis on the body's inherent capacity to heal itself, naturopathic medicine is a completely natural and holistic approach to promoting health and well-being. As an offshoot of the vitalistic approach to medicine, naturopathic techniques stimulates the flow of the body's vital force or energy to promote the individual's own inherent healing abilities. Naturopathic remedies include the use of dietary modifications, exercise, massage, acupuncture and various other alternative therapies";
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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PBS's Frontline states:
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[in "Countercultural Healing: A Brief History of Alternative Medicine in America" {per Whorton, J. (PhD{history} ?), regarding VFS}]
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"lay people, after all, were inclined to see life as a more mysterious process, and so found satisfaction in homeopaths' declarations of faith in a vital spirit roused to activity by their drugs, and in magnetic healers' claims to manipulate a cosmic vital energy [...] many patients have opted for healing methods that presume the existence of a vital force (naturopathy) or some form of life energy (the human energy field of therapeutic touch, the qi of acupuncture, the prana of ayurveda)";

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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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the PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicine and Healing Therapies(2000) states:

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"an undetectable life force named qi [p.012...] Hahnemann used tiny doses of substances [...] he theorized that this replaced the disease with a similar but weaker illness that the body's 'vital force' could more easily overcome [p.015...] manipulating the body's energy [...] hypothetical energies and 'vital forces' [...] a vital force called qi [p.019...] the vital force, qi [p.023...] acupuncture [...] the life force, (called qi or ch'i [p.053...] homeopathy [...] can mobilize the body's 'vital forces' [p.146...] qi (the elemental life force of Chinese medicine) [p.219...] qigong [...] a supernatural or physical 'energy flow' [...] the vital energy qi [p.222...] reflexology [...per] a life force, or vital energy [p.229] tai chi [...] chi [...] a vital force [p.239...] yoga [...per] prana, or life force [...] the life force prana [p.254]";

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(ISBN 0345433777)
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Peterson’s Guides states:
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i.
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[in "Graduate Programs in Business, Education, Health, Information Studies, Law & Social Work: 2004"(2003)]
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"University of Bridgeport College of Naturopathic Medicine [...] naturopathic medicine is grounded in the vitalistic tradition [p.2119]";
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(ISBN 076891146X)
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ii.
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[in "Peterson's Graduate Programs in Business, Education, Health, Information Studies, Law & Social Work: 2006"(2005)]
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"naturopathic medicine is a science-based, vitalistic philosophy [which is oxymoronic! pseudoscientific! p.2131]";
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(ISBN 0768917433)
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Petersons.com states:
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[in "National College of Naturopathic Medicine"]
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"naturopathic medicine is a science-based, vitalistic [oxymoronic, pseudoscientific! science doesn't base the idealistic-metaphysical-supernatural, & science-discarded] philosophy and practice rooted in the principle of vis medicatrix naturae, the healing power of nature";
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(click here,
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the Phrontistery - A Dictionary of Obscure Words states:
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[in “Vitalism”]
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“the doctrine that there is a vital force behind life”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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the Portland Business Journal states:
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[in "Treating the Whole Person" {11-14-1997}]
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"the following list is naturopathic medicine's six principles of healing: [1] the healing power of nature. The body has the inherent ability to establish, maintain and restore health. The healing process is ordered and intelligent; nature heals through the response of the life force. The physician's role is to facilitate and augment this process [...3] first do no harm. Illness is a purposeful process of the organism. The process of healing includes the generation of symptoms that are, in fact, an expression of the life force attempting to heal itself. Therapeutic actions should be complementary to and synergistic with this healing process. The physician's actions can support or antagonize the actions of the vis medicatrix naturae";

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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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the Random House Unabridged Dictionary(1997) states:
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i.
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[in “Vitalism”]
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“the doctrine that phenomena are only partly controlled by mechanical forces, and are in some measure self-determining […as relates to life] a doctrine that ascribes the functions of a living organism to a vital principle distinct from chemical and physical forces”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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ii.
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[in “Vital Force”]
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“the force that animates and perpetuates living beings and organisms. Also called vital principle”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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the Rising Nepal states:
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[in “Naturopathy- An Art of Natural Healing”{per Maharjan, U. (? ?), 06-26-2006}]
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“naturopathy is sometimes called natural medicine […] this system of treatment assists nature, supports the body's innate capacity to have optimal health, facilitates the body's inherent healing mechanism, enables the body to purify itself and cure itself of diseases by enhancing the vital force, and stimulates the body's natural healing process to get rid of toxins accumulated in the body”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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Roget's II: The New Thesaurus (3rd ed.) states:
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i.
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[in “Life Force”]
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life force. Noun. The vital principle or animating force within living beings: breath, divine spark, élan vital, psyche, soul, spirit, vital force, vitality. See body/spirit”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
(also click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
(also click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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ii.
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[in "Vital Force"]
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"vital force [...] the vital principle or animating force within living beings: breath, divine spark, élan vital, life force, psyche, soul, spirit, vitality";
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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1998) states:
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[in "Vitalism"]
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"[yet to note]";
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(click here for a version,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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the Santa Cruz Sentinel states:

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[in "Naturopathic Medicine Comes of Age"{Koch, L. (? ?)}{10-20-2003}]
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"the healing power of life the vis medicatrix naturae. More than 3,000 years ago, Chinese medicine referred to it as chi. It is called prana in Indian ayurveda and vital force in Egyptian and European homeopathy. No matter what it is called, the living force which everyone recognizes as the defining quality of being alive and void when dead is what naturopathic medicine strives to harness as the healing power of nature";

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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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the Seattle Post-Intelligencer states:
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i.
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[in "Natural Medicine: Acupuncture For Headache Relief"{per Natividad, D.I. (MS ?, LAc ? ) -- acupuncture and Oriental medicine resident, Bastyr Center for Natural Health}(2008-04-13)]
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"according to traditional Chinese medicine, one cause of headaches is a blockage in the smooth flow of qi energy and blood. Treatments that focus on removing this blockage may involve needling the site of pain and other sites along associated energy channels";
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(click here,
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ii.
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[in "Medical Edge: Ask the Mayo Clinic"{per Reimer, R. (MD ?)}(2009-02-16)]
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"acupuncture [...] can be utilized to rebalance the flow of energy (qi or chi) [...] the goal is to improve energy flow in the body";
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the Skeptic's Dictionary states:
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[ISBN 9780471480884 (2004)]
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i.
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[in "Vitalism"{01-28-2007}]
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“[quoting Dennett, D. (? ?)] ‘vitalism […an] insistence that there is some big, mysterious extra ingredient in all living things’ […a] metaphysical doctrine that living organisms possess a non-physical inner force or energy that gives them the property of life […and that] the laws of physics and chemistry alone cannot explain life functions and processes […a position] opposed to mechanistic materialism and its thesis that life emerges from a complex combination of organic matter […aka] chi or qi (China)[,] prana (India and therapeutic touch), ki […]Reich's orgone, Mesmer's animal magnetism, Bergson's élan vital (vital force) […and for] American advocates […] energy […per] many kinds of alternative therapies or energy medicines […like] ayurvedic medicine, therapeutic touch, reiki, and qigong”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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ii.
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[in "Chi (Ch'i or Qi){01-28-2007}"]
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ch'i or qi […] the Chinese word used to describe ‘the natural energy of the universe’ […an] energy, though called ‘natural,’ is spiritual or supernatural, and is part of a metaphysical, not an empirical, belief system […with] New Agers often refer[ring] to this energy as subtle energy […] such metaphysical systems are generally referred to as types of vitalism […] vitalism is a popular philosophy in many cultures […] chi has many counterparts: prana (India and therapeutic touch), ki (Japan) [...] Reich's orgone, Mesmer's animal magnetism, Bergson's élan vital (vital force) […a] concept [that] is very popular among New Age thinking […per] energy […except New Age ‘energy’] bears no resemblance to the concept as used by physicists”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,

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iii.
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[in "Prana"{02-26-2007}]
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"prana is the all-pervading vital energy of the universe, according to Hinduism. It is the Indian version of chi";
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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SkepticWiki states:
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[in “Vitalism”]
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“definition. Vitalism is a belief that the distinguishing factor between living and non-living things is a 'vital force' or 'life energy' that causes living things to be animate. This vital force may be known as: chi (China), qi (China), prana (India), ki (Japan), animal magnetism, elan vital, bioenergetic field, the force, orgone energy [...] vitalism is not specific to any particular religion, although it is often closely associated with shamanism. It is an important concept in Chinese traditional medicine, dating back several thousand years [...] 'on a spiritual and energetic level our bioenergy field (aura) is balanced and strong, the bioenergy field is where all disease begins so it makes sense to clear any blockages here'”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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(also here,
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the Southern Illinoisan states:
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[in “Homeopathy: Out of the Shadows and Into the Mainstream”{per Wasson, L. (? ?)}{11-09-2006}]
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“the goal of homeopathy is to stimulate the body's own immune and defense system for healing […] with medicines made from plants, minerals and even animals, homeopathy individualizes small doses of medicines for each patient. The body's vital force then responds to the vital force in the medicines and the body's healing power is stimulated to recover from disease and fight illness in the future. The goal is thus complete restoration of the person's overall health […] 'I tell my patients that I can't take them off the medications they are already taking,' says Carol Perkins, ND, a naturopath who practices in Lexington, Kentucky, and Carmi, Illinois. 'With homeopathy, I work to get them to a state of health so they will no longer need those medications. Homeopathy helps to get their organs working and turn their life force around so that the body can heal itself' […] 'homeopathy starts peeling off layers until you get to the core of the problem,' says W. Todd Pierson, N.D., a naturopathic doctor who practices locally in Herrin and Murphysboro. 'Instead of just treating symptoms, homeopathy goes much deeper into the human organism. With homeopathy, we are treating the whole person, the physical, emotional and spiritual aspects of the person'”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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Steadman’s Online Medical Dictionary states:
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[in “Vitalism”]
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“the theory that animal functions are dependent upon a special form of energy or force, the vital force, distinct from the physical forces. Syn: vis vitalis, vis vitae”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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(for a digg.com social bookmark of this, click here,
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the Sunday Mirror[UK?] states:
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[in “Psychic Sandra: Go Natural”{per Ramdhanie, S. (? ?)}{10-05-2003}]
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“naturopathy, or naturopathic medicine […] naturopaths believe that nature heals and that there is a life force that, given the right conditions, will self-heal or self- correct. This life force is stimulated by factors that promote health and is suppressed by excesses and deficiencies”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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